International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders
A nonprofit nongrovernment organization
Expert international body on Iodine
Iodine Deficiency and Fetal Brain Damage
The New England Journal of Medicine, December 29, 1994, Vol. 331, No. 26
[for Professionals mainly]
Iodine deficiency is by far the most common preventable cause of mental deficits in the world. The most severe effect of iodine deficiency is endemic cretinism, which is characterized by the combination of mental deficiency, deaf-mutism, and motor rigidity or, less commonly, by severe hypothyroidism
Endemic cretinism is still found in southern and eastern Europe and is common in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, where the prevalence may reach 10 percent in some communities
In 1990, the World Health Organization estimated that 20 million people in the world had varying degrees of preventable brain damage
Kashin-Beck Disease -- Expanding the Spectrum of Iodine-Deficiency Disorders
The New England Journal of Medicine, October 15, 1998, Vol. 339, No. 16
[for Professionals mainly]
Selenium, as selenocysteine, is an integral component of two important enzymes -- glutathione peroxidase and iodothyronine deiodinase -- that are present in may tissues, including the thyroid gland
Selenium and iodine are thus linked biochemically because both are involved in thyroid hormone production. Selenium and iodine are also linked geographically, most notably in Asia. Severe deficiency of both iodine and selenium occurs in a region extending from northeastern China and adjacent regions of Siberia and Korea to southwestern China, including Tibet
Three disorders have been associated with it: Keshan disease, Kashin-Beck disease, and (when it occurs in combination with iodine deficiency) hypothyroid cretinism. Keshan disease is a cardiomyopathy affecting mostly young and middle-aged women. It is characterized by multifocal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and leads to cardiogenic shock and congestive heart failure. The name derives from Keshan County in northeastern China
The second disorder associated with selenium deficiency is Kashin-Beck disease, named for two investigators who studied affected patients in Siberia in the 19th century. It is an osteoarthropathy of the hands and fingers, elbows, knees, and ankles in children and adolescents. It is characterized by necrosis of growth-plate and epiphyseal chondrocytes and proliferation of surrounding chondrocytes, and it leads to a hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and, in some subjects, to short stature.
Iodine Deficiency Disorder
IDD Problem Statement
Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world
Children with IDD can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded and incapable of normal movement, speech or hearing. IDD in pregnant women cause miscarriage, stillbirth and mentally retarded children. 1.6 billion people are at risk, IDD affects 50 million children, 100,000 cretins are born every year.
1% - 10% Cretinism
5% - 30% Some Brain Damage
30% - 70% Loss of Energy due to Hypothyroidism
A teaspoon of iodine is all a person requires in a lifetime
Costs only US $0.04 per person annually ...
The Micronutrient Initiative
L'initiative pour les micronutriments
Eliminating micronutrient malnutrition can significantly improve the health and socio-economic wellbeing of billions of people ...
Potassium Iodide (KI) Working Group of the Radiation Emergency Preparedness Advisory Committee (REPAC)
Peter Cane, September 13, 1999
Governments throughout the developed world recognize that the major health lesson learned from Chernobyl is the extreme sensitivity of children's thyroid glands to radioiodines: thus the upsurge of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. In Poland, by contrast, health authorities gave out 18 million doses of KI, and protected virtually all of the nation's 10.5 million children
Poland has been spared a similar increase in thyroid cancer
American tend to assume that public health protection for their children is second to none. In the case of KI, this is not the case. Twice in 20 years the NRC has made commitments to the American people on KI, only to renege on them afterwards. As a result, we are still in a pre-Three Mile Island state of preparedness on KI
I laid out the 20-year history of the NRC's mishandling of the issue; it may be found on the NRC's rulemaking website, firstname.lastname@example.org ...
Potassium Iodide (KI) Radiation Protection
What is Potassium Iodide (KI)?
How does Potassium Iodide (KI) pill provide radiation protection?
What about Potassium Iodate (KIO3)?
June 23, 1966, the New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 274 on Page 1442 states: The thyroid gland is especially vulnerable to atomic injury since radioactive isotopes of iodine are a major component of fallout
Increase in cancer caused by Chernobyl
Was detected in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Notably, this increase, seen in areas more than 150 miles (300 km) from the site, continues to this day and primarily affects children who were 0-14 years old at the time of the accident
the vase majority of the thyroid cancers were diagnosed among those living more than 50 km (31 miles) from the site ... A salt of the elements potassium and iodine, taken orally even in very small quantities 1/2 hour to 1 day before radioactive iodines are swallowed or inhaled, prevents about 99% of the damage to the thyroid gland that otherwise would result
The Chernobyl accident demonstrated that thyroid cancer can indeed be a major result of a large reactor accident. Moreover, although the Food and Drug Administration declared KI "safe and effective" as long ago as 1978, the drug had never been deployed on a large scale until Chernobyl. The experience of Polish health authorities during the accident has provided confirmation that large scale deployment of KI is safe
The revised policy also reflects wide scale change in international practice following the Chernobyl disaster, specifically 1989 World Health Organization recommendations (updated in 1995) and 1996 and 1997 International Atomic Energy Agency standards and guidance, which have led to use of KI as a supplementary protective measure in much of Europe, as well as in Canada and Japan
Potassium Iodate (KIO3), offered in an 85 mg tablet (200 tablets to a bottle) is the "cousin" of Potassium Iodide (KI)
Its U.S. manufacturer, Medical Corps, claims it is/has a) extended shelf life b) no bitter taste c) cheaper per dose
It is more stable
Is non-hygroscopic ...
Pruebas de función tiroidea en
embarazadas normales (tercer trimestre)
y en embarazadas con colestasis gravídica
o con hepatitis aguda
Gustavo Pineda V et al., Rev. méd. Chile v.128 n.1 Santiago ene. 2000
La colestasis gravídica (CG) o "colestasis intrahepática de la embarazada", se caracteriza por prurito cutáneo extenso y signos bioquímicos de una colestasis leve, que aparecen durante la segunda mitad de un embarazo y desaparecen, rápidamente, después del parto. Ha sido detectada en muchos países y en diferentes grupos étnicos: caucásicas, indias sudamericanas, afro-americanas, chinas, etc. Su prevalencia ha sido siempre mayor en Suecia, Finlandia y Chile, que en otros países, habiéndose observado que tiene variaciones estacionales, siendo más frecuente en invierno y mucho menos en verano. Desde 1975 esta prevalencia ha declinado notoriamente, en Suecia y en Chile ... La causa de la CG se desconoce, pero se considera relacionada con las hormonas sexuales, particularmente los estrógenos y la progesterona, cuyos metabolitos influirían en la formación y secreción de la bilis ... Estudios realizados veinte años atrás, comprobaron que las embarazadas chilenas tenían una deficiencia moderada de yodo y alteraciones en pruebas de función tiroidea (PFT) ...
Last Updated: 2008/2/18