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International Birth Defects Information Systems
Micronutrients - Vitamins - Food Fortification

International Birth Defects Information Systems

Micronutrients - Vitamins - Food Fortification

Topics: | Micronutrients | Food Fortification | Retinol | Vitamins (in general) |

Related Topics : | Folic Acid | Iodine - Selenium | Vitamin A |

Service Related: | Support Groups | Professional Associations | Key Information Sources |

Languages: | English |

The State of The World's Children 1998 Focus on Nutrition
UNICEF, 1998
… Several approaches exist to prevent vitamin A deficiency … Vitamin A can be boosted through homestead gardening … Periodic supplementation that provides high-dose vitamin A capsules … Overall, UNICEF estimates that more than half of all young children in countries where vitamin A deficiency … Several countries have chosen another route to improved vitamin A status … Fortifying the sugar supply. Sugar is also being fortified in parts of Bolivia, Brazil, El Salvador, Honduras and the Philippines, and Zambia … Iron deficiency anaemia is probably the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world … The consequences of anaemia for pregnant women and their newborn children are often disastrous … In 1993, Venezuela began fortifying all wheat and maize flour with iron and B vitamins … Anaemia is made worse by some illnesses, particularly hookworm infection. Malaria is also a major cause of anaemia …

The Addition of Vitamins and Minerals to Foods Policy Recommendations
Stefa Katamay, MHSc, RD, Health Canada Santé Canada, July 2000
[English] [French]
… Why review Health Canada's policies on food fortification? ...

Food Fortification: Recommendations
… Food fortification is an essential element in nutrition strategies to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies … General recommendations … The use of fortification, following the principles outlined in Codex Alimentarius … A multi-sectoral approach must be adopted … Harmonize national legislation concerning fortified foods … Appropriate fortification of foods used in food aid programmes, with donors … Levels of fortification should be evaluated and adjusted according to bioavailability … Evaluate the potential of local food industries …

Food Fortification with Micronutrients

... The term “food fortification” means the addition of nutrients at levels higher than those found in the original food. Fortification is synonymous with enrichment ...

Micronutrient Initiative
Micronutrient Initiative
Regional offices in South Asia now include Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan … Virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders … Virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its … Reduction of iron deficiency anemia in women …

Vitamin Reference Guide
D&S Services, 2008
Vitamin A ... Vitamin D ... Vitamin E ...

Recommendations For Vitamin A Use During Pregnancy
Teratology Society Position Paper, TERATOLOGY 35:269–275 (1987).
Carotene, e.g., beta-carotene, has not been associated with vitamin A toxic effects. The risk of birth defects owing to synthetic vitamin A analogs has already been documented in humans, excess vitamin A (25,000 IU or more) as retinol/retinyl esters during pregnancy has been associated with some birth defects in a small number of case reports.


Last Updated: 2008/3/19


American Medical Association